Oracle Spatial was introduced as a content management feature in Oracle Database 7 as part of the Oracle Spatial Option. It allows users and application developers to integrate their spatial (latitude and longitude) data into enterprise applications. Oracle Spatial facilitates analysis based on the relationships of associated spatial data, like the proximity of store locations to customers within a given distance and sales revenue per territory.
Spatial features available for development and deployment with Oracle Database includes today:
- 2D and 3D geometry data types to represent locations, regions, and other geometries
- All spatial functions and operators
- Map authoring tools
- Sensor and imagery data support with Point Cloud, LiDAR and GeoRaster data types and operators
- Networks and parcel data management with Linear Referencing, Network and Topology data models
- Geocoder, Routing Server, Tracking Server, Map Server
- Open Geospatial Consortium web service APIs
- Spatial Studio, a self-service, no-code/low-code map canvas and spatial analysis tools
Oracle Spatial and Graph includes a restricted use license for Oracle Partitioning. This restricted use is allowed for the sole purpose of support for the following Spatial, Property Graph, and RDF Graph Technologies (RDF/OWL) features: spatial topology, property graph schema, and RDF Semantic Graph. All other uses of Oracle Partitioning require license for the Oracle Partitioning option, where available.
Licensing & name changes over the years
Around 1984, Oracle firstly incorporated spatial-data capability with a modification to Oracle 4. Oracle’s Spatial technology was introduced in Oracle 7.2 under the name “Oracle MultiDimension (MD)”. Later, the name was changed to “Oracle Spatial Data Option (or SDO)” and to “Spatial Data Cartridge” in Oracle 8. Together with scientists working at the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS), a joint development team redesigned the Oracle kernel, resulting in the “Spatial Data Option” or “SDO” in Oracle 7. The “SDO_” prefix created then can still be found in Oracle Spatial implementations. With Oracle 8i, Oracle named the Oracle Spatial Data Option simply as “Oracle Spatial”. In Oracle Database 10g Release 1 the Network Data Model graph feature was introduced with and RDF Semantic Graph with Oracle Database 10g Release 2. As of Oracle
Database version 11g, the licensable product was no longer called Oracle Spatial Option, but was renamed to “Oracle Spatial and Graph Option”, to highlight the graph database capabilities in the product.